Generally the true Amateur radio operators have their favorite bands over this spectrum that they tune into quite often. This band makes all other bands appear less desirable for the operator using it. But before you determine your favorite bands, make sure you are licensed to access that band. When you will apply for a specific license, you will have the knowledge of the band coverage that is granted under that license class.
You should also have the proper equipment that can support the band you will be tuning into. With an entry-level license, you can cover VHF(2m) and UHF(70cm) that are mostly preferred by beginners. You can buy a hand-held single-band or dual-band radio if you want to operate on these bands in an affordable manner without any heavy requirements. You can also employ amateur repeaters with your system for increasing the range of the VHF or UHF radios.
Once you have made your mind about your favorite band, you now need to pay heed to the restrictions that are imposed by the FCC under your license class for that specific band. You will find different band allocations both in Canada and the U.S. that limit the band usage to certain extent.
The FCC has divided the globe into 3 ITU regions that have their unique band plans working in their favor. These plans overlap at many points that make it easy for you to find common frequencies and connect with people sitting far away.
Here are the details of the bands that the operators love to use along with the time and location of their usage. But your eligibility to access a specific band is solely dependent on the type of license you hold.
If you are interested in long distance communication, the HF (high frequency) bands are made for you. These bands can propogate over very large distances but this ability can vary depending on the current time and season of the year. If you are able to sync the time with the band, you can talk with anyone operating a ham radio anywhere in the world.
When sunspot high cycle is there, higher HF frequencies are most favored while during a low cycle, the low frequencies are supported but there are many variations that exist between these two extremes. In magazines like QST and CQ, special propagation charts are published that tell us which part of the world will get what kind of propagation. These charts lay down a rought idea of choosing the best possible match between time and band for an effective communication. Canadian and U.S. hams have been allocated with different bands in the HF area.
Probably the most important thing you need to remember when transmitting is ID!
FCC Rules and Regulations, Part 97, Sec. 97.119 Station identification.
Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel at the end of each communication, and at least every 10 minutes during a communication, for the purpose of clearly making the source of the transmissions from the station known to those receiving the transmissions. No station may transmit unidentified communications or signals, or transmit as the station call sign, any call sign not authorized to the station.
(SOURCE PART 97)